Entomology Department

A bibliography of Halobates (Gerridae) and other marine water striders (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha)

Compiled 2002 by Nils Møller Andersen, Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark


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Andersen NM. 1976. A comparative study of locomotion on the water surface in semiaquatic bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Vidensk. Meddr dansk naturh. Foren. 139: 337-396.

Andersen NM. 1977. Fine structure of the body hair layers and morphology of the spiracles of semiaquatic bugs (Insect, Hemiptera, Gerromorpha) in relation to life on the water surface. Vidensk. Meddr dansk naturh. Foren. 140: 7-37.

Andersen NM. 1979. Phylogenetic inference as applied to the study of evolutionary diversification of semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera: Gerromorpha). Syst. Zool. 28: 554-578.

Andersen NM. 1982. The Semiaquatic Bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Phylogeny, adaptations, biogeography, and classification. Entomonograph 3: 1-455.

Andersen NM. 1989. The coral bugs, genus Halovelia Bergroth (Hemiptera, Veliidae). I. History, classification, and taxonomy of species except the H. malaya-group. Entomol. Scand. 20: 75-120.

Andersen NM. 1989. The coral bugs, genus Halovelia Bergroth (Hemiptera, Veliidae). II. Taxonomy of the H. malaya-group, cladistics, ecology, biology, and biogeography. Entomol. Scand. 20: 179-227.

Andersen NM. 1991. Cladistic biogeography of marine water striders (Insecta, Hemiptera) in the Indo-Pacific. Austr. Syst. Bot. 4: 151-163.

Andersen NM. 1991. Marine insects: genital morphology, phylogeny and evolution of sea skaters, genus Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 103: 21-60.

Andersen NM. 1992. A new genus of marine water striders (Hemiptera, Veliidae) with five new species from Malesia. Entomol. Scand. 22: 389-404.

Andersen NM. 1995. Cladistic inference and evolutionary scenarios: locomotory structure, function, and performance in water striders. Cladistics 11: 279-295.

Andersen NM. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the evolution of sexual dimorphism and mating systems in water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 61: 345-368.

Andersen NM. 1997. Phylogenetic tests of evolutionary scenarios: the evolution of flightlessness and wing polymorphism in insects. Mem. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. 173: 91-108.

Andersen NM. 1998. Marine water striders (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) of the Indo-Pacific: cladistic biogeography and Cenozoic palaeogeography. In Hall R, Holloway JD (eds), Biogeography and Geological Evolution of SE Asia : 341-354.

Andersen NM. 1998. Water striders from the Paleogene of Denmark with a review of the fossil record and evolution of semiaquatic bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Biologiske Skrifter 50: 1-157.

Andersen NM. 1999. The evolution of marine insects: phylogenetic, ecological and geographical aspects of species diversity in marine water striders. Ecography 22: 98-111.

Andersen NM. 2000. The evolution of dispersal dimorphism and other life history traits in water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Entomological Science (Japan) 3: 187-199.

Andersen NM. 2000. The marine Haloveliinae (Hemiptera: Veliidae) of Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand, with six new species of Xenobates Esaki. Raffles Bull. Zool. 48: 273-292.

Andersen NM. 2001. Fossil water striders in the Oligocene/Miocene Dominican amber (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha). Insect Syst. Evol. 31[2000]: 411-431.

Andersen NM, Cheng L, Damgaard J, Sperling FAH. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of oceanic insects (Hemiptera: Gerridae: Halobates spp.). Marine Biology 136: 421-430.

Andersen NM, Farma A, Minelli A, Piccoli G. 1994. A fossil Halobates from the Mediterranean and the origin of sea skaters (Hemiptera, Gerridae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 112: 479-489.

Andersen NM, Foster WA. 1992. Sea skaters of India, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives, with a new species and a revised key to Indian Ocean species of Halobates and Asclepios (Hemiptera, Gerridae). J. Nat. Hist. 26: 533-553.

Andersen NM, Poinar GO Jr. 1998. A marine water strider (Hemiptera: Veliidae) from Dominican amber. Entomol. Scand. 29: 1-9.

Andersen NM, Polhemus JT. 1976. 8. Water-striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Veliidae, etc.). In Cheng L. (ed.), Marine Insects. North Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam: 187-224.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 1994. Austrobates rivularis, gen. et sp. nov., a freshwater relative of Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae), with a new perspective on the evolution of sea skaters. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 1-15.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 1994. The sea skaters, genus Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera: Gerridae), of Australia: taxonomy, phylogeny and zoogeography. Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 861-909.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 1998. Australian water striders of the subfamilies Trepobatinae and Rhagadotarsinae (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 12: 509-544.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 1999. The marine Haloveliinae (Hemiptera, Veliidae) of Australia, New Caledonia and southern New Guinea. Invertebrate Taxonomy 13: 309-350.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 2000. The coral treaders, Hermatobates Carpenter (Hemiptera: Hermatobatidae), of Australia and New Caledonia with notes on biology and ecology. Invertebrate Taxonomy 14: 327-345.

Andersen NM, Weir TA. 2002. A new species of  sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz, from Robinson River, Western Australia (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Gerridae). Aquatic Insects (in press).

Andres HG, John HC. 1984. Results of some neuston net catches in the warmer central north Atlantic: fish larvae and selected invertebrates. Meeresforschung 30: 144-154.

Annandale N. 1911. Note on aquatic Rhynchota. Rec. Indian Mus. 6: 111-112.

Annandale N, Kemp S. 1915. Fauna of the Chilka Lake. Aquatic insects, other than Coleoptera, with notes on some marginal species. Memoirs of the Indian Museum 5: 177-187, pl. 11.

Ashmole NP, Ashmole MJ. 1967. Comparative feeding ecology of sea birds of a tropical oceanic island. Bull. Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., Yale Univ. 24: 1-131.

Barber HG. 1914. Hemiptera of Florida. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull. 33: 49.

Barber HG. 1925. Hemiptera-Heteroptera from the Williams Galapagos Expedition. Zoologica 5: 241-254.

Barber HG. 1934. The Norwegian Zoological Expedition to the Galapagos Islands 1925, conducted by Alf Wolleboek. 11. Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Zool. Mus. Oslo, Medd. 42: 281-289.

Barber HG. 1943. Biological results of the last cruise of the Carnegie, 1928-29. 6. Halobates. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 555: 77-84.

Bergroth E. 1893. Mission scientifique de M. Ch. Alluaud aux Iles Séchelles. Hétéroptères. Revue Ent. 12: 197-209.

Bergroth E. 1893. On two halophilous Hemiptera. Entomologist's Monthly Mag. 29: 277-279.

Birch MC, Cheng L, Treherne JE. 1979. Distribution and environmental synchronization of the marine insect, Halobates robustus, in the Galapagos Islands. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (B) 206: 33-52.

Brown DM, Cheng L. 1981. New net for sampling the ocean surface. Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser. 5: 225-227.

Bull KR, Murton RK, Osborn D, Ward P, Cheng L. 1977. High levels of cadmium in Atlantic seabirds and sea-skaters. Nature, Lond. 269: 507-509.

Carpenter GH. 1892. Rhynchota from Murray Island and Mabuiag. Reports on the Zoological collections made in Torres Straits by Professor A.C. Haddon, 1888-1889. Scient. Proc. R. Dubl. Soc. N.S. 7: 137-146.

Carpenter GH. 1906. Report on the marine Hemiptera (Halobates) collected by Prof. Herdman at Ceylon in 1902. London. Report to the Government of Ceylon on the pearl oyster fisheries. Pbl. By the Royal Society.

Cassis G, Gross GF. 1995. Hemiptera: Heteroptera (Coleorrhyncha to Cimicomorpha). In Houston WWK, Maynard GV (eds), Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Vol. 27.3A. CSIRO Australia: Melbourne: 1-506.

Champion GC. 1897-1901. Rhynchota Heteroptera, 2. In Godman & Salvin's Biol. Centr. Amer.: 416 pp.

Cheng L. 1966. A curious marine insect, Hermatobates. Malayan Nature Journal 19: 286-290.

Cheng L. 1971. Ocean-striders from Melanesia (Hemiptera: Gerridae, Halobates spp.). Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sér. Océanogr. 9: 513-518.

Cheng L. 1973. Can Halobates dodge nets? I. By daylight?. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 663-665.

Cheng L. 1973. Halobates. Ann. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 11: 223-235.

Cheng L. 1973. Marine and freshwater skaters: differences in surface fine structures. Nature, Lond. 242: 132-133.

Cheng L. 1973. Some Halobates from the Pacific Ocean. Jap. J. Zoology 17: 11-15.

Cheng L. 1973. The ocean strider Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Oceanology 13(4): 564-570.

Cheng L. 1974. Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from the seas around Nosy Be, Malagasy. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., sér. Océanogr. 12: 113-116.

Cheng L. 1974. Halobates from the North-West African area. Res. Exp. Cient. B/O Cornide 3: 169-171.

Cheng L. 1974. Notes on the ecology of the oceanic insect Halobates. Mar. Fish. Rev. 36: 1-7.

Cheng L. 1975. Insecta Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Gerridae, genus Halobates. Fish. Ident. Zooplancton (Cons. Int. Explor. Mer) 147: 4 pp.

Cheng L. 1975. Marine pleuston - animals at the sea-air interface. Ann. Rev. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 13: 181-212.

Cheng L (Ed). 1976. Marine Insects. North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam : 581 pp.

Cheng L. 1976. A new species of Hermatobates (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Pan-Pacif. Ent. 52: 209-212.

Cheng L. 1977. The elusive sea bug Hermatobates. Pan-Pacif. Ent. 53: 87-97.

Cheng L. 1980. Halobates and other little known marine insects of the South Pacififc region. Proc. Int. Symp. on Mar. Biogeography and Evolution in the Southern Hemisphere, Auckland, N.Z.: 583-591.

Cheng L. 1981. Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from Micronesia with notes on a laboratory population of H. mariannarum. Micronesica 17: 97-106.

Cheng L. 1982. Beach and coastal insects. In Schwartz, M.L. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Beach and Coastal Environments. Philadelphia: Hutchinson Ross: 960 pp.

Cheng L. 1982. Halobates from the coastal water of China. Oceanologia et Limnologia Sinica 13: 346-349.

Cheng L. 1985. Biology of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Ann. Rev. Ent. 30: 111-135.

Cheng L. 1989. Biogeography and phylogeny of the sea-skaters Halobates. Chin. J. Oceanol. Limnol. 7: 233-239.

Cheng L. 1989. Factors limiting the distribution of Halobates species. In Ryland, J.S. & Tyler, P.A. (Eds.). Reproduction, genetics, and distributions of marine organisms. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen: 357-362.

Cheng L. 1991. The endemic sea-skater Halobates alluaudi Bergroth, 1893 (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the Seychelles. Raffles Bull. Zool. 39: 161-168.

Cheng L. 1997. Disjunct distributions of Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Insects 51: 134-142.

Cheng L, Alexander GW, Franco PJ. 1976. Cadmium and other heavy metals in sea-skaters (Gerridae: Halobates, Rheumatobates). Water Air Soil Pollut. 6: 33-38.

Cheng L, Baars MA, Oosterhuis SS. 1990. Halobates in the Banda Sea (Indonesia): Monsoonal differences in abundance and species composition. Bull. Mar. Sci. 47: 421-430.

Cheng L, Bidleman TF. 1977. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine insects. Estuarine Coastal Mar. Sci. 5: 289-291.

Cheng L, Birch MC. 1977. Terrestrial insects at sea. J. Mar. Biol. Assc. UK 57: 995-997.

Cheng L, Birch MC. 1978. Insect flotsam: an unstudied marine resource. Ecol. Ent. 3: 87-97.

Cheng L, Douek M, Goring DAI. 1978. UV absorbtion by gerrid cuticles. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 554-556.

Cheng L, Enright JT. 1973. Can Halobates dodge nets? II. By moonlight?. Limnol. Oceanogr. 18: 666-669.

Cheng L, Fernando CH. 1969. A taxonomic study of the Malayan Gerridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with notes on their biology and distribution. Oriental Insects 3: 97-160.

Cheng L, Franco PJ, Schulz-Baldes M. 1979. Heavy metals in the sea-skater Halobates robustus from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador: concentrations in nature and uptake experiments, with special reference to cadmium. Marine Biology (Berlin) 54: 201-206.

Cheng L, Frank JH. 1993. Marine insects and their reproduction. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Annu. Rev. 31: 479-506.

Cheng L, Harrison CS. 1983. Seabird predation on the sea-skater Halobates sericeus (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Marine Biology (Berlin) 72: 303-310.

Cheng L, Hill DS. 1980. Marine Insects of Hong Kong. [In] Morton, B.S. & Tseng, C.K. (Eds.). The Marine Flora and Fauna of Hong Kong and Southern China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press: 173-183.

Cheng L, Holdway P. 1983. Halobates collected during the circumnavigational expedition 'Operation Drake'. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 78: 187-198.

Cheng L, Holdway P. 1995. Populations of Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae) across two oceans. Raffles Bull. Zool. 43: 313-327.

Cheng L, John H-Ch, Ré P. 1986. Northeastern range of Halobates micans (Heteroptera, Gerridae) in the Atlantic Ocean. Reports on Marine Research 31: 137-140.

Cheng L, Leis EW. 1980. Notes on the seabug, Hermatobates hawaiiensis China (Heteroptera: Hermatobatidae). Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 23: 193-197.

Cheng L, Lewin RA. 1971. An interesting marine insect, Rheumatobates aestuarius (Heteroptera: Gerridae), from Baja California, Mexico. Pacific Insects 13: 333-341.

Cheng L, Maxfield L. 1980. Nymphs of two sea-skaters, Halobates robustus and H. micans (Heteroptera: Gerridae). Syst. Ent. 5: 43-47.

Cheng L, Roussis V. 1998. Sex attractant in the marine insect Trochopus plumbeus (Heteroptera: Veliidae): a preliminary report. Marine Ecology Progress Series 170: 283-286.

Cheng L, Schmitt PD. 1982. Marine insects of the genera Halobates and Hermatobates (Heteroptera) from neuston tows around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Austr. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 33: 1109-1112.

Cheng L, Schulz-Baldes M. 1981. Frequency and population composition of Halobates micans (Heteroptera: Gerridae) from the central and south Atlantic Ocean. 'Meteor' Forsch. Ergebnisse, Reihe D. 33: 17-21.

Cheng L, Schulz-Baldes M, Harrison CS. 1984. Cadmium in ocean-skaters, Halobates sericeus (Insecta), and in their seabird predators. Marine Biology 79: 321-324.

Cheng L, Schulenberger E. 1980. Distribution and abundance of Halobates species (Insecta: Heteroptera) in the eastern tropical Pacific. Fishery Bulletin 78: 579-591.

Cheng L, Wormuth JH. 1992. Are there separate populations of Halobates in the Gulf of Mexico?. Bull. Mar. Sci. 50: 307-319.

China WE. 1955. The evolution of the water bugs. In Symposium on Organic Evolution. Bulletin of the National Institute of Science, India 7: 91-103.

China WE. 1956. A new species of the genus Hermatobates from the Hawaiian Islands (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, Gerridae, Halobatinae). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 12 9: 353-357.

China WE. 1957. The marine Hemiptera of the Monte Bello Islands, with descriptions of some allied species. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool. 40: 342-357.

China WE, Usinger RL. 1950. Hermatobates haddonii Carpenter from the Marquesas Islands (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Proc. Hawaii. Ent. Soc. 14: 53.

Coutière H, Martin J. 1901. Sur un nouvel Hémiptère halophile. Bulletin de Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 172-177.

Coutière H, Martin J. 1901. Sur un nouvel Hémiptère halophile, Hermatobatodes marchei n.gen., n.sp. Bulletin de Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 5: 214-226.

Coutière H, Martin J. 1901. Sur un nouvelle sous-famille d'Hémiptères marins, les Hermatobatidae. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences 132: 1066-1068.

CSIRO (eds). 1991. The Insects of Australia. 2nd ed. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.  2 vols.: xvi + 1137 pp.

Dahl F. 1893. Die Halobates-Ausbeute der Plankton-Expedition. Erg. Plankt. Exp. 2 Ga: 1-9.

Damgaard J, Andersen NM, Cheng L, Sperling FAH. 2000. Phylogeny of sea skaters, Halobates Eschscholtz (Hemiptera, Gerridae), based on mtDNA sequence and morphology. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 130: 511-526.

Delsman HG. 1926. On the propagation of Halobates. Treubia 8: 384-388.

Distant WL. 1903. Report on the Rhynchota, part I, Heteroptera. Fasciculi Malayensis, Zool. 1: 219-274, pls. 15-16.

Distant WL. 1910. Some undescribed Gerrinae. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 5: 140-153.

Distant WL. 1910. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Rhynchota V. Heteroptera: Appendix. Taylor and Francis, London. 362 pp., 214 figs.

Distant WL. 1915. A few undescribed Rhynchota. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 15: 503-507.

Esaki T. 1924. On the curious halophilous water strider, Halovelia maritima Bergroth (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 14: 29-34.

Esaki T. 1924. On the genus Halobates from Japanese and Formosan coasts (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Psyche 21: 112-118, pl. 5.

Esaki T. 1926. The water-striders of the subfamily Halobatinae in the Hungarian National Museum. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natn. Hung. 23: 117-164.

Esaki T. 1928. Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera. Insects of Samoa 2: 67-80.

Esaki T. 1929. A remarkable speo-halophilous water-strider (Heteroptera, Mesoveliidae). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 10 4: 341-346.

Esaki T. 1929. New or little-known Gerridae. II. Indian species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 10, 4: 412-419.

Esaki T. 1930. Marine water-striders from the Corean coast (Hemiptera, Gerridae). The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 65: 158-161.

Esaki T. 1930. New or little-known Gerridae from the Malay Peninsula. J. Fed. Malay St. Mus. 16: 13-24.

Esaki T. 1933. Halophilous Hemiptera from the coasts of Japan. Botany and Zoology 1(6): 771-784.

Esaki T. 1937. A new Asclepios from Japan. Mushi 9: 135-136.

Esaki T. 1937. Die Gerroidea Mikronesiens (Hemiptera-Heteroptera). Tenthredo 1: 351-362.

Eschscholtz JF. 1822. Entomographien, vol. 1 (1ste lieferung). Berlin : 128 pp.

Foster WA. 1989. Zonation, behaviour and morphology of the intertidal coral-treader Hermatobates (Hemiptera: Hermatobatidae) in the south-west Pacific. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 96: 87-105.

Foster WA, Treherne JE. 1980. Evidence for the dilution effect in the selfish herd from fish predation on a marine insect. Nature 293: 466-467.

Foster WA, Treherne JE. 1980. Feeding, predation and aggregation behaviour in a marine insect, Halobates robustus Barber (Hemiptera: Gerridae), in the Galapagos Islands. Proc. R. Ent. Soc. Lond. (B) 209: 539-553.

Foster WA, Treherne JE. 1982. Reproductive behaviour of the ocean skater Halobates robustus (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the Galapagos Islands. Oecologia 55: 202-207.

Foster WA, Treherne JE. 1986. The ecology and behaviour of a marine insect, Halobates fijiensis (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 86: 391-412.

Frauenfeld G von. 1867. Zoologische Miscellen. 11. Das Insektenleben zur See. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien, Verh. 17: 456-460, Pl. 12, fig. 1-10.

Grifffini A. 1895. Gli Halobates del viaggio della "Magenta". Mus. Torino Boll. 10: 5 pp.

Hadden FC. 1931. The Pelagic Halobates. Hawaiian Ent. Soc. Proc. 7: 457-459.

Hale HM. 1925. The aquatic and semi-aquatic Hemiptera. Results of Dr. E. Mjöberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to Australia 1910- 1913. Ark. Zool. 17A(20): 1-19.

Henry GM. 1932. Notes on the diving power of Halobates. Spolia Zeylanica 16: 353-354.

Henry TJ, Froeschner RC (Eds). 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. Leiden: E.J. Brill: 1-958.

Herring JL. 1958. The marine water-striders of the "Dana" Expeditions (Insecta: Hemiptera). Dana-Report 44: 1-14.

Herring JL. 1961. The genus Halobates (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Pacific Insects 3(2-3): 223-305.

Herring JL. 1964. A new species of Halobates from the Bay of Bengal. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 66: 85-86.

Herring JL. 1965. Hermatobates, a new generic record record for the Atlantic Ocean, with descriptions of new species (Hemiptera: Gerridae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 117: 123-129.

Holland DL, Crisp DJ, East J. 1983. Changes in the fatty acid composition of the ocean-strider, Halobates fijiensis (Heteroptera: Gerridae) after starvation. Marine Biology Letters 4: 259-266.

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John HC. 1982. Distribution of Halobates micans (Heteroptera, Gerridae) in the northern Atlantic during spring, with comments on its catchability in neuston nets. "Meteor" Forschungsergebn. Reihe D 34: 31-36.

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Kirkaldy GW. 1899. Missions de M. Ch. Alluaud aux iles de la region malgache. Hémiptères (Gerridae, Corixidae, Notonectidae). Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 68: 101-109.

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Linnavuori R. 1977. On the taxonomy of the subfamily Microveliinae (Heteroptera, Veliidae) of West and Central Africa. Ann. Ent. Fenn. 43: 41-61.

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